Copyright, 1992 by Dr. S. Kathleen Kitao and Dr. Kenji Kitao. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced without prior written permission from the authors. This textbook is accompanied by a tape and a teachers' guide which includes an English explanation of how to use the textbook and answers for the exercises. For class adoption, we offer a complimentary tape and teachers' guide. Please contact us at the following address. Published by Sanshusha 1-5-34 Shimotani, Taito-ku, Tokyo 110 Phone (03) 3842-1711 Fax (03) 3845-3965 ii INTRODUCTION Hints for Students The following suggestions will help you get the most out of this textbook. As you read, try to be open to another culture and way of life. The readings in this textbook include information on American history. This will help you understand more about Americans, their background, and how they live. Do not translate the English you read. One purpose of this textbook is to help you develop reading skills and improve your reading speed without translating word-for-word into Japanese. Difficult words and expressions are explained in easy English. Use these definitions to help you read without translating. Try to guess the meanings of words you do not know. If you need to use a dictionary, use an English-English dictionary. Use the exercises to guide you in understanding the readings. Various types of exercises help you understand the content of each reading, including the main point, important details, and how they are related. Reading these selections and doing the exercises will help you learn reading techniques inductively. As you read each selection, time yourself. Record your reading speed in the "Time Record Chart." Use the "Reading Speed Chart" to calculate your reading speed. (The number of words in each main selection is at the end of the reading and in the "Time Record Chart.") Using these charts, you can see your reading speed _improving. Use the photographs and other visual aids to help you understand what you are reading. Before you read, look at them (along with the iii title of the reading passage) and think about what kind of information will be in the reading. As you read, use them to help you visualize the things you are reading about. Read other material about American culture. In this textbook, we are able to present only a few aspects of American culture. You should read about others on your own. Read as much as possible in English, so you can further improve your reading ability and increase your reading speed. You will be more motivated to read if you read in a foreign language about something you are interested in. To the Teachers The College Reading Materials Research Project began with six college and high school English teachers in December 1979, and was partially supported by research grants from the Japanese Association of Language Teachers (JALT) in 1980 and 1981. Our goal is to develop reading materials that will help first and second year college students by: 1) giving them information about the United States of America, 2) interesting them in reading English, 3) exposing them to a variety of literary forms, 4) helping them improve their reading skills, and 5) helping them increase their reading speed. We started by doing research on reading problems of Japanese college students. Based on our findings, we developed reading materials and printed the first edition of An American Sampler in 1981. After using this first edition in the classroom in 1982, we revised it and expanded it into three volumes. The first volume, published by Addison-Wesley Publishing Company, is being marketed worldwide. Since then we have published fifteen reading textbooks, including Understanding English Newspapers (Kirihara Shoten), American vi Holidays and American Mosaic (Eichosha), American Portrait (Asahi Shuppan), and Colonial Days (Gaku Shobo). In this textbook, the readings are in essay form. The vocabulary used in these readings is mostly limited to words on a 4000-word list compiled by the Japan Association of College English Teachers (JACET). Words that are not on this list are defined after the reading. In addition, words that might have an unfamiliar meaning or might require unfamiliar cultural information in order to understand are also defined. Because they are in essay form and have limited vocabulary, these are good to use to increase reading speed. We would like to express our appreciation to Mr. Vincent Brodrick, Ms. Barbara Fujiwara, Ms. Michiko Inoue, Mr. Hideo Miyamoto, Ms. Junko Miyazaki, and Mr. Leslie Sackett for helping lay the foundations for this textbook and Mr. Shinsuke Yoshida, Ms. Haruyo Yoshida, Mr. Makoto Kurata, and Mr. Kinji Kawamura, who helped with preliminary research. We would also like to thank Ms. Kathy Yamane of Eichi University, Ms. Cathy Duppenthaler of Seibo Women's Junior College, and Mr. Michael Furmanovsky of Doshisha Women's College for reading and commenting on our manuscript. S. Kathleen Kitao, PhD Kenji Kitao, PhD February 1992 Kyoto, Japan v Table of Contents Introduction I. Events in American History 1. The New World . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. New England and the Southern Colonies . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The War of Independence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. Lewis and Clark Explore the West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. Americans Move West . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6. The California Gold Rush . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. The American Civil War . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. America in the Great Depression . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9. The Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10. World War II and the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. The Viet Nam War and its Effects on the U.S. . . . . . . . . II. Trends in American History 12. The Expansion of the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. The Industrialization of the United States . . . . . . . . . . 14. Women's Rights in the United States . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. America's Civil Rights Movement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. America's Space Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. The War of Independence From 1775 to 1783, thirteen of the British colonies in North America fought a war to become independent. This war is called the Revolutionary War, the War of Independence or the American Revolution. For many years, some of the British colonies in North America had not been happy with the British rule. The British Parliament passed laws and taxes that affected the colonies, even though the colonies did not have any representatives in the Parliament. However, there was disagreement over what to do about this problem. Some colonists wanted to solve the problems while still remaining English subjects. Still, by the middle of the 1770s, more and more people thought that the colonies could not solve the problems without becoming independent of Britain. Before the war started, the colonists resisted the English laws. They sent protests to Britain and boycotted British goods. Militias were formed and began drilling and gathering munitions. In April 1775, the British general in Boston found out about munitions that were stored near Lexington and Concord, Massachusetts. Soldiers were sent to destroy the munitions and arrest two revolutionary leaders. However, the colonists were warned, and they exchanged shots with the British in Lexington and in Concord. Then, as the British returned to Boston, American soldiers shot at them from behind rocks, fences and trees that lined the road. By the time the British arrived in Boston, almost 300 men were dead, captured, or wounded. These battles marked the beginning of the war. The Continental Congress began to discuss the possibility of independence in June 1776. Once fighting had actually begun, it was easier to consider independence. A vote was taken on July 2, and the delegates voted unanimously for independence. A Declaration of Independence was written, which declared that the colonies had a right to be independent and gave their reasons. The President of the Congress signed it on July 4 (which is now celebrated by Americans as Independence Day). George Washington was appointed the Commander in Chief of the American forces. While the Americans had a few important victories, the war did not go well for them at first. Washington and his army were in New York City, but they were forced to flee to New Jersey in December. The British went into their winter quarters. On Christmas Eve while they were holding a party, the Americans launched a surprise attack and were able to capture a large British force. The Americans defeated the British again in Princeton, New Jersey. These victories were important militarily, but they were also important because they were very encouraging. The Americans had not had many victories up to that time. The Battle of Saratoga was another victory that had importance beyond its military significance. The victory helped the Americans to convince the French that they had a possibility of winning the war, and, as a result, the French agreed to help the Americans. A French army arrived in America late in 1778. The American army spent the winter of 1778-1779 in Valley Forge, Pennsylvania. It was the low point of the war. The winter was very cold, many of the men were sick, and there was little food or warm _clothing. However, Washington took this opportunity to have his army trained, so they were a better army as a result of the winter spent in Valley Forge. Though the peace treaty was not signed until 1783, the major fighting ended in July 1781. The British army was camped on a peninsula near Yorktown, Virginia. The Americans and the French surrounded the British army, with the French navy cutting the British off from the sea, and the Americans and the French cutting them off from the land. The British army had no choice but to surrender. The war was over. In the Treaty of Paris, signed two years later, the British recognized the independence of the United States. The treaty also fixed the borders of the United States as the Mississippi River, Canada, and Florida. The colonies had won their independence, something that must have at times seemed impossible. However, it was still necessary to make the thirteen states into one country and set up a government. (702 words) Vocabulary 1. Parliament: law-making body of Britain 2. subjects: people owing loyalty to a certain king or queen 3. boycotted: refused to buy (something) 4. militias: groups of soldiers who fight in their home country 5. drilling: training 6. munitions: large weapons for war 7. lined: formed rows along 8. Continental Congress: law-making body of the thirteen states before and during the Revolutionary War 9. delegates: representatives 10. unanimously: with everyone agreeing 11. George Washington: (1732-1799); head of the military during the War of Independence; first President of the United States 12. Commander in Chief: head of the military of a country 13. forces: military 14. quarters: places where people live 15. launched: started 16. militarily: from a military point of view 17. the Battle of Saratoga: a battle in 1778 near Saratoga, New York 18. cutting...off: surrounding so that movement is impossible 19. the Treaty of Paris: a treaty between Britain and the United States, ending the war and deciding the territory of the U.S. 20. the Mississippi River: the longest river in the United States, flowing from the north central U.S. to the southeastern U.S. Skimming Exercise Look for numbers in the reading and answer the following questions as quickly as possible. 1. When did thirteen of the colonies in North America go to war for independence? 2. When did a French army arrive in America? 3. When was the peace treaty signed? True/False Questions T F ? 1. The colonies did not want to pay taxes, even though they had representatives in Parliament. T F ? 2. Many people in the colonies were not in favor of independence before the middle of the 1770s. T F ? 3. The Revolutionary War was the colonies' war for independence. T F ? 4. The war started when British soldiers were sent to destroy munitions and arrest revolutionary leaders. T F ? 5. The British soldiers returned from Lexington and Concord without any problems. T F ? 6. After the war had begun, Americans were less likely to consider independence. T F ? 7. No one in the Continental Congress voted against independence. T F ? 8. July 2, the day the delegates voted for independence, is the day Americans celebrate as Independence Day. T F ? 9. Though the war did not go well for Americans at first, they did have some important victories, which were encouraging. T F ? 10. The Battle of Saratoga was important, because it convinced the French to help. T F ? 11. The army did not benefit from the winter at Valley Forge. T F ? 12. The last major battle of the war took place when the Americans and French surrounded the British at Yorktown. T F ? 13. The Treaty of Paris included a payment by Americans to the British. T F ? 14. Even after winning the war, Americans were left with the job of making the states into a country. Matching Exercise Match the dates on the left with the events on the right. ___ 1. middle of the 1770s a. the war began ___ 2. April 1775 b. Continental Congress voted for ___ 3. June 1776 independence ___ 4. July 2, 1776 c. American army stayed at Valley Forge ___ 5. 1778 d. more people wanted independence ___ 6. winter of 1778-1779 e. peace treaty was signed ___ 7. July 1781 f. Continental Congress began to discuss ___ 8. 1783 independence g. French army arrived in America h. last major battle of the war Catalog an inspection copy request
Note: This material is copyrighted and exclusively distributed by Sanshusha in Japan. It can be copied and used outside of Japan only.